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Solenoid valve, what to pay attention to when choosing?

Having a machine, and even producing details on it, is one thing, but knowing its properties, how it is built and what its technical requirements are, is another matter. For the same reasons, users of equipment requiring the use of solenoid valves face problems in selecting the correct valves to meet their specific requirements. This is indicated by search engine queries and post topics on relevant forums. This article was written with such people in mind.

Solenoid valve, what do the various parameters mean?

There are known cases, for example, of turners who can create real miracles on their devices. However, when there is a need to select the appropriate knives or - what is worse - to remove the failure, the service is called and the machine is useless. It is similar with purchasing parts. Even if the user knows the name of a specific element, he gets lost in the technical specifications.

Yes, you can get a professional consultation from a professional, but it requires time, which is often missing from the point of view of continuity of production.

You can find everything about everything in the Google search engine. Research studies indicate, however, that the questioners do not expect industry statements emanating from anonymous experts.

When asked which valve to pump X, the user wants to get an answer that is understandable to the average person. The fact that the valve has an armature tells him nothing, unless someone explains in an accessible way what it is and what the mysterious armature is for?

There are opinions that people should only deal with what they know very well. They seem to be preached by those lucky enough to work in their jobs, but what should a watchmaker who has a chance to make a living by weaving baskets say? Agreement. He should change his branch, but it takes time and knowledge. This article aims to help you get it, at least generally.

As it is in vain to look for this type of publication, the author of the article decided to familiarize the readers with the meaning of technical terms, starting with solenoid valves, due to the wide range of their applications. Perhaps others will follow suit, thus making life easier for a huge number of users of mechanical devices? Time will tell.

Solenoid valves, what are they and what are they for?

According to Wikipedia: " Solenoid valve (solenoid valve) - a valve used to cut off or control the flow of liquid or gaseous media ." Can it be easier?

Solenoid valves are an indispensable element of all installations through which gases or liquids flow. Starting with the well-known washing machine, coffee machine, through water and sewage systems, ending with oil processing. Everyone must come into contact with them without exception, from babies to old people.

A more extensive list of applications, below:

  • pneumatic systems,

  • industrial washing equipment,

  • compressors,

  • vacuum pumps,

  • machines for forming plastic products,

  • food processing machinery,

  • steam boilers,

  • fire and sprinkler installations,

  • dental equipment,

  • boilers,

  • coffee machines,

  • municipal sewage treatment plants,

  • power plants,

  • water and sewage installations,

  • crude oil processing,

  • electricity generation,

  • laboratory equipment.

The list gives you an idea of how versatile these devices are. There are a lot of valve types, so to simplify the task a bit, let's focus only on YPC pneumatic and solenoid valves.

Solenoid valves, construction

A typical solenoid valve consists of a coil and a body as the main elements predisposing the device to a specific operation.

The coil generates a magnetic force that lifts the core to either the open-flow or closed position. Therefore, it can be argued that it is a detail that determines the reliability of the entire mechanism.

The body not only fastens everything together, but also its structure makes the entire valve suitable for use in a specific system.

No matter if it is a typical solenoid valve or a pneumatic solenoid valve , the principle of operation is similar.

Air solenoid valve and pneumatic valves

They control the gas flow, most often air. The control of the solenoid valve usually consists in extending or retracting the piston rod of the pneumatic actuator. They are used in industry and in home appliances. They are an integral part of pneumatic systems that must function very consistently. What does it mean?

Pneumatic systems should absolutely be matched in terms of tightness of components. In no case can you afford the slightest design flaws. Not only because the entire system could stop working.

A leaky or improperly installed solenoid valve for air could lead to a health hazard or even the death of people working nearby. Gases compressed under a sufficiently high pressure in the installation can cause an explosion at any time, a slight neglect or a moment of inattention is enough.

From the point of view of these considerations, it is important because the technical specifications of the valves contain information on the amount of the maximum allowable working pressure.

As well as marking the requirements for the necessary electricity for the correct operation of the mechanism.

The information that the product is a 24 volt pneumatic solenoid valve means that the coil used in the valve requires the electricity specified in the name of the device.

Classification of solenoids by function:

  • Distribution valves. They are used to divide and determine the flow direction of the working medium. They clear or close the exits, marking the path of the medium's movement (gas, liquid).

  • Check valves. They allow only one direction of fluid movement within the valve.

  • Shut-off valves. They block or unblock the movement of the working medium (switch on, switch off).

  • Throttle valves. In addition to regulating the movement of the factor, they can also be used to determine the force with which the factor moves.

Later in this article we will refer to the valve markings, discussing the information contained in them.

Pneumatic solenoid valves, specifications

When looking for a suitable valve, customers encounter specifications that define the parameters for which the device is adapted. Sample specification applies to the device:

12v pneumatic solenoid valve .

  • Function: 5/2 monostable

  • Connection: 1/4 ″

  • Way of return: air + spring

  • Width: 26 mm

  • Flow: 1000 l / min (5 bar)

  • Medium: compressed air and inert gases

  • Pressure: 1.5 ~ 10 bar

  • Temperature range: 5 ~ 60 ° C

  • Response time: 25 ms (5 bar)

  • Working frequency: 5 c / sec

  • Lubrication: use ISO VG32 #

  • Manual override: button

Not always and not everything is fully understandable, especially for customers who do not deal strictly with pneumatics. It is worth remembering that not every compressor owner has to be an expert in the field of pneumatics. So, what do some of the above-mentioned parameters mean?

Function: 5/2

An example of a 12 volt air solenoid valve has the following characteristics

  • number of roads;

  • number of adjustable positions;

  • way of control.

The control can be manual, mechanical, mixed or electromagnetic.

The 5/2 symbol tells the user how many openings the valve has (5) and how many operating positions (2).

The SF series are universal 5/2 action valves. 5/3 and 3/2. The 5/2 and 5/3 action valves can be mounted on one plate.

Bistability and monostability

The term relates to the stability of the valves. Bistable valves also require deactivation after activation. The monostable valves are self-deactivating after being turned off.

Connection: 1/4

Connection dimension in inches.


Correct selection of valve type and size is essential for the future operation of the system. Know the Kv value, flow velocity and pressure drop parameters.


The parameter indicates the substance handled by the valve.


Permissible values of working pressure. Minimum and maximum.

Temperature range

Permissible thermal conditions for the described valve.


The parameter relates to the viscosity grade of the required hydraulic oil.

In this context, it is impossible not to mention the supply of pneumatic valves as a very important feature that distinguishes the 12 v solenoid valve, 24 v air solenoid valve and the like.

The valves are either line or plate powered.

In the first case, the working medium enters the device through pipes mounted with threads.

Plate-fed valves are mounted to the valve plates to achieve high flow pressures. In addition, it allows for a significant reduction in the space occupied by a given system and greatly facilitates the installation of other electronics. For these reasons, plate fed valves are considered to be more efficient in most cases.

In addition, the manufacturer provides details of the materials used in the production of the valves. The optimal ones are: aluminum, stainless steel and glass-fiber reinforced nylon.

The product name, eg "12 volt solenoid valve for air", describes the type of coil used. AC (alternating current) stands for alternating current, and DC for direct current.

Pneumatic solenoid valves from a leading manufacturer

The materials for this article were obtained from the courtesy of the Pneumatig company, which has been successfully cooperating with a Korean manufacturer of pneumatic devices intended primarily for industrial automation applications for many years.

It should be added that the Asian concern YPC has been a certified exporter of devices since 1999, covering the entire world. From the same year, he regularly participates in the Hannover Messe in Germany.

All valves offered by Pneumatig are manufactured according to ISO 9001 and have CE certification.

It can be hoped that the above knowledge will facilitate the correct selection of valves necessary for the operation of machinery and equipment in the enterprise. However, this does not change the fact that it is worth consulting with the experienced personnel of the delivery company.

It is important that it is a company that can boast of achievements in the broadly understood pneumatics market and the reputation of partners cooperating with it. It will be an effective guarantee that the equipment purchased there will meet the expectations of even the most demanding customers.